Spill Delineation 

E-Flux Map Traps use multiple test locations to map petroleum-contaminated sites. Map Traps utilize an isotopic carbon dating technique to provide a binary (yes/no) indication of LNAPL presence at tested locations.

NSZD quantification 

Fossil Fuel Traps measure the rate of natural biodegradation of LNAPL pollutants (such as petroleum) by capturing CO₂ emitted from contaminated soil and groundwater. The fossil fuel CO₂ flux is measured over time, providing a time-averaged estimate that accounts for temporal variability at sites.

Web-based NSZD monitoring

Bio-Therm is a web-based model that accounts for NSZD and local soil temperature interactions. 
Bio-Therm integrates heat transfer processes and the temperature dependence of petroleum biodegradation kinetics (available from microcosm studies) into a quantitative tool.

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